Is China a capitalist country or a communist one?

Marxism, Leninism, and Maoism

Marxism is a science. A scientific theory can be falsified. Science is an open theory that can be modified according to new evidence, new finding of knowledge, and new discovery of facts. Marxism as a science is also an open theory that the theory develops based on the new reality due to the evolution of the human society that Marx himself did not experience in his life.

Surplus Value

One of the great discoveries of Marx is the Surplus Value. Marx discovered surplus value through the study of capitalism. Surplus value at the individual level is that a worker creates more value than his consumption for labor reproduction (or living cost in layman’s terms). On the ideological aspect, the concept of surplus value restores the dignity of laborers, claiming that workers create wealth. This concept sets a solid foundation for the spirit of revolution. That’s why capitalists hate Marx.

Class Struggles

The Communist Manifesto states:” The history of all existing societies so far is the history of class struggle. “ The existence of class struggle in our society is a reality, whether you want it or not.


Alienation is a crucial subject in Marxism theory. The most important alienation is capital. Man created capital but is controlled by the capital. Capital has its will to pursue profit. In a capitalist society, the society functions according to the will of capital, not the will of Man. The alienation is the result of the division of labor. According to Smith, the economy advances through the increasing division of labor. As a result, the production of human society is a social production. One produces not for his or her own consumption but for market realization. The market provides the mechanism for a division of labor and social production. The alienation of capital is the conflict of social production and private ownership of the means of production. So, to get rid of alienation, according to Marx, is the abolition of private ownership. In other words, communism is eliminating the alienation of capital.



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Xiaoming Guo

Xiaoming Guo


Ph.D. from McGill University. MBA from Queen’s University. A patriot Canadian believes that a good relationship with China serves our best national interest.